A friend asked me
about prime numbers with only ones in their decimal representation,
numbers such as 11, 1111111111111111111, and 11111111111111111111111.
Such numbers are known as prime
*repunits*, and can be expressed as (10^{n}‒1)/9. I wrote a
program using GMP
for looking for such primes and then ran it for numbers with up to
45000 digits. It took a while, and I didn't find any new prime
repunit. The currently known prime repunits have 2, 19, 23, 317,
1031, 49081, 86453, 109297, and 270343 digits.

Then I switched attention to factoring repunits as well as numbers of
the form 10^{n}+1. (Note that repunits can be expressed as (10^{n}‒1)/9 and are
thus of a similar algebraic form.) Paul Zimmermann had just
implemented his GMP-ECM program for the ECMNET project,
so I started to run that program on a number of Alpha computers. So far the
program has helped me to find thousands of previously unknown factors.

Here are up-to-date factor files:

Please note that algebraic factors are not included in these tables. Intrinsic factors are however included.

Additional factors for numbers with exponents larger than 1000 can be found elsewhere.

Countless people have contributed factors to these tables over several decades, among them R. Brent, R. Silverman, P. L. Montgomery, S. Wagstaff, A. K. Lenstra, F. Morain, H. Dubner, B. Dodson, Baillie, Yousuke Koide, Atkin and Rickert, Davis and Holdridge, Paul Zimmermann.

If you want to maximize the outcome of your factoring work, you need to spend some time on understanding how to run GMP-ECM efficiently. This is a non-trivial task, but the result might be that you find many more factors without using more processor cycles.

- Start with a recent GMP release, at least GMP 4.2.x, but preferably GMP 5.x.
- When building GMP-ECM, run
`make tune`

between`configure`

and`make`

. Make sure to pass`--with-gmp-blabla`

to`configure`

to point to your newly built GMP. (There is a`--help`

option that lists the available options, and what they do.) - Consider passing -no-ntt to the
`ecm`

command. I've yet to see an example where GMP-ECM's NTT code wins over the GMP multiplication code. (When you compare the speed, be aware of that the B2 bounds are rounded differently with and without NTT.) - If you run GMP-ECM on a multiprocessor of some sort, it is important to
tune GMP-ECM's memory access patterns. While stage 1 is cache friendly, stage
2 requires memory that is a function of the B2 bound, which might be hundreds
of megabytes. Access to this memory also has poor locality, as GMP-ECM and GMP
are currently implemented.
I've written a C program for running GMP-ECM on multiprocessors. It requires that cofactors are stored in separate files, and that a directory

`../cracked`

exist for storing factorization reports. The idea of the program is to run as few parallel stage 2 as possible. For some additional usage instructions, see the output of -help from the program. Or mail me at the address below and ask. - The default B2 is usually too small, in particular when using -no-ntt
with a recent GMP release. The
`ecm`

command provides a`-v`

option that gives various output, among them a useful estimate of the required time to find a certain factor size. Use that for tuning B2 on your machine!

Please send comments about this page to tege@gmplib.org (you'll get a new address in a bounce message).

Copyright 1998, 1999, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2011 Torbjörn Granlund. All wrongs reversed.