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`mpz_t`

variables represent integers using sign and magnitude, in space
dynamically allocated and reallocated. The fields are as follows.

`_mp_size`

The number of limbs, or the negative of that when representing a negative integer. Zero is represented by

`_mp_size`

set to zero, in which case the`_mp_d`

data is unused.`_mp_d`

A pointer to an array of limbs which is the magnitude. These are stored “little endian” as per the

`mpn`

functions, so`_mp_d[0]`

is the least significant limb and`_mp_d[ABS(_mp_size)-1]`

is the most significant. Whenever`_mp_size`

is non-zero, the most significant limb is non-zero.Currently there’s always at least one limb allocated, so for instance

`mpz_set_ui`

never needs to reallocate, and`mpz_get_ui`

can fetch`_mp_d[0]`

unconditionally (though its value is then only wanted if`_mp_size`

is non-zero).`_mp_alloc`

`_mp_alloc`

is the number of limbs currently allocated at`_mp_d`

, and naturally`_mp_alloc >= ABS(_mp_size)`

. When an`mpz`

routine is about to (or might be about to) increase`_mp_size`

, it checks`_mp_alloc`

to see whether there’s enough space, and reallocates if not.`MPZ_REALLOC`

is generally used for this.

The various bitwise logical functions like `mpz_and`

behave as if
negative values were twos complement. But sign and magnitude is always used
internally, and necessary adjustments are made during the calculations.
Sometimes this isn’t pretty, but sign and magnitude are best for other
routines.

Some internal temporary variables are setup with `MPZ_TMP_INIT`

and these
have `_mp_d`

space obtained from `TMP_ALLOC`

rather than the memory
allocation functions. Care is taken to ensure that these are big enough that
no reallocation is necessary (since it would have unpredictable consequences).

`_mp_size`

and `_mp_alloc`

are `int`

, although `mp_size_t`

is usually a `long`

. This is done to make the fields just 32 bits on
some 64 bits systems, thereby saving a few bytes of data space but still
providing plenty of range.

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